Introduction to Infrastructure:
For the country to experience greater economic growth and reduce poverty, the infrastructure is crucial.
Important Features of Infrastructure
It is worthwhile to mention some distinctive features of infrastructure – First, the building of infrastructure requires large and lumpy investment and they contribute to output, after a long time that is their gestation period is quite long. Second, due to large overhead capital and lumpy investment, significant economies of scale are found in most of them. Due to the significant economies of scale found in many infrastructure services, they have the characteristics of natural money. The third important feature of infrastructure facilities is they create externalities.
The Importance of Physical Infrastructure
Why is the development of a country’s physical infrastructure so crucial? The explanation is that after products are made, they must be transported to ports and airports so that they can be shipped to other states and nations. This means that the items must be transported on decent roads; otherwise, they will be delayed, costing businesses money and harming their reputation. There is no purpose in efficiently producing items in the first place if the producer cannot convey them to the destination as rapidly as they can.
Roads, Ports, and Airports
To get raw materials and other components, businesses also require access to good roadways. Additionally, efficient ports—those where ships may load and unload without having to wait around for extended periods—are essential for economic growth as they prevent losses for both importers and exporters during the loading and unloading of cargo from ships. A similar demand exists for the development of modern, effective airports to facilitate the more accessible and simpler movement of people inside and between nations. For all of the aforementioned reasons, the physical infrastructure must be as effective and efficient as possible.
Other Elements of Infrastructure
Other elements of infrastructure are the power and water situation apart from the development of a city’s infrastructure. Moreover, if a city cannot cope with the influx of migrants and absorb the growing numbers of people, then the people working in the plants and factories would be unable to function effectively and work productively. Loans for infrastructure are also an important component of growing economies.
While many experts discuss the physical infrastructure, they neglect to include another important component, namely the software or the employees’ talents, productivity, and productive capacities.
The management and planning of urban areas are key components of a country’s infrastructure.
Following are the important features of infrastructure:
1. Public Goods: Most of the physical infrastructure services have some element, of public good in them i.e. it is not always possible to exclude that consumer who chose not to pay for them.
2. Externalities: The social benefit of the infrastructure services is more than the cost involved in their generation. It makes it difficult to price them economically.
3. Monopolies: Monopolies are more prevalent in infrastructure.
4. Public Sector Domination: Public sector dominates in the supply of infrastructure due to the above-mentioned features.
5. Lumpy Investment: Infrastructure projects are such that any expenditure on a part of the project is not useful until the whole project is ready for operations.
6. Indivisibilities: It means one can not divide and sub-divide such projects into small parts and activate them.